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The FictionMags Index Family
Accented Character Trigraphs

As use of the FictionMags data format spread during the 1980s, there became more and more of a need to handle characters that did not exist in the normal 7-bit USASCII character set. While many of the required characters did exist in various 8-bit extensions of USASCII, the lack of consistency between these (and the limited support for them in text editors) made it necessary to invent a 7-bit representation that could be used to identify such characters in a clear and unambiguous way.

The approach taken was similar to that later adopted by Microsoft Word in that it used a three-character combination for each such character, consisting of an introductory character ('^') followed by two characters that visually suggested the character concerned (such that, for instance, ^e' was used for "e acute" and ^e` for "e grave"). The following table identifies all the trigraphs currently supported, together with the character it represents (these may not all display correctly depending on your browser type and operating system) and the formal name for the character (typically abbreviated from the Unicode name).

Note that, where no trigraph exists for a character that is required, the Unicode value in the form &#nnnn; or &#xnnnn; as defined in the List of Unicode Characters should be used.

Accented Latin Characters Special European Characters
Name Character Trigraph Name Character Trigraph Name Character Trigraph
Capital Letter A Acute Á ^A' Capital Letter L Slash Ł ^L/ Small Letter Dotless I ı ^i.
Capital Letter A Breve Ă ^A) Small Letter L Acute ĺ ^l' Capital Letter Eth Ð ^D/
Capital Letter A Circumflex  ^A^ Small Letter L Caron ľ ^lv Small Letter Eth ð ^d/
Capital Letter A Diaeresis Ä ^A" Small Letter L Cedilla ļ ^l, Small Letter Sharp S ß ^ss
Capital Letter A Grave À ^A` Small Letter L Slash ł ^l/ Capital Letter Thorn Þ ^TH
Capital Letter A Macron Ā ^A_ Capital Letter N Acute Ń ^N' Small Letter Thorn þ ^th
Capital Letter A Ogonek Ą ^A( Capital Letter N Caron Ň ^Nv     Ligatures
Capital Letter A Ring Å ^A* Capital Letter N Cedilla Ņ ^N, Capital Letter A E Æ ^AE
Capital Letter A Tilde à ^A~ Capital Letter N Tilde Ñ ^N~ Small Letter A E æ ^ae
Small Letter A Acute á ^a' Small Letter N Acute ń ^n' Capital Letter I J IJ ^IJ
Small Letter A Breve ă ^a) Small Letter N Caron ň ^nv Small Letter I J ij ^ij
Small Letter A Circumflex â ^a^ Small Letter N Cedilla ņ ^n, Capital Letter O E Œ ^OE
Small Letter A Diaeresis ä ^a" Small Letter N Tilde ñ ^n~ Small Letter O E œ ^oe
Small Letter A Grave à ^a` Capital Letter O Acute Ó ^O' Mathematical Symbols
Small Letter A Macron ā ^a_ Capital Letter O Breve Ŏ ^O) Plus or Minus Sign ± ^+-
Small Letter A Ogonek ą ^a( Capital Letter O Circumflex Ô ^O^ Fraction One Quarter ¼ ^14
Small Letter A Ring å ^a* Capital Letter O Diaeresis Ö ^O" Fraction One Half ½ ^12
Small Letter A Tilde ã ^a~ Capital Letter O Double Acute Ő ^O: Fraction Three Quarters ¾ ^34
Capital Letter C Acute Ć ^C' Capital Letter O Grave Ò ^O` Degree Sign ° ^oo
Capital Letter C Caron Č ^Cv Capital Letter O Macron Ō ^O_ Multiplication Sign × ^x.
Capital Letter C Cedilla Ç ^C, Capital Letter O Slash Ø ^O/ Division Sign ÷ ^:-
Capital Letter C Circumflex Ĉ ^C^ Capital Letter O Tilde Õ ^O~ Greater than sign > ^ >
Capital Letter C Dot Ċ ^C. Small Letter O Acute ó ^o' Punctuation
Small Letter C Acute ć ^c' Small Letter O Breve ŏ ^o) Inverted Exclamation Mark ¡ ^!!
Small Letter C Caron č ^cv Small Letter O Circumflex ô ^o^ Inverted Question Mark ¿ ^??
Small Letter C Cedilla ç ^c, Small Letter O Diaeresis ö ^o" Cent Sign ¢ ^c/
Small Letter C Circumflex ĉ ^c^ Small Letter O Double Acute ő ^o: Pound Sign £ ^##
Small Letter C Dot ċ ^c. Small Letter O Grave ò ^o` Yen Sign ¥ ^Y=
Capital Letter D Caron Ď ^Dv Small Letter O Macron ō ^o_ Em Dash ^--
Capital Letter D Stroke Đ ^D- Small Letter O Slash ø ^o/ Therefore Sign ^:.
Small Letter D Caron ď ^dv Small Letter O Tilde õ ^o~ Copyright Sign © ^(C
Small Letter D Stroke đ ^d- Capital Letter R Acute Ŕ ^R' Trademark Sign ^TM
Capital Letter E Acute É ^E' Capital Letter R Caron Ř ^Rv Registered Trademark Sign ® ^(R
Capital Letter E Breve Ĕ ^E) Capital Letter R Cedilla Ŗ ^R, Euro ^E=
Capital Letter E Caron Ě ^Ev Small Letter R Acute ŕ ^r' Peseta ^Pt
Capital Letter E Circumflex Ê ^E^ Small Letter R Caron ř ^rv Ellipsis ^._
Capital Letter E Diaeresis Ë ^E" Small Letter R Cedilla ŗ ^r,  
Capital Letter E Dot Ė ^E. Capital Letter S Acute Ś ^S'  
Capital Letter E Grave È ^E` Capital Letter S Caron Š ^Sv  
Capital Letter E Macron Ē ^E_ Capital Letter S Cedilla Ş ^S,  
Capital Letter E Ogonek Ę ^E( Capital Letter S Circumflex Ŝ ^S^  
Small Letter E Acute é ^e' Small Letter S Acute ś ^s'  
Small Letter E Breve ĕ ^e) Small Letter S Caron š ^sv  
Small Letter E Caron ě ^ev Small Letter S Cedilla ş ^s,  
Small Letter E Circumflex ê ^e^ Small Letter S Circumflex ŝ ^s^  
Small Letter E Diaeresis ë ^e" Capital Letter T Caron Ť ^Tv  
Small Letter E Dot ė ^e. Capital Letter T Cedilla Ţ ^T,  
Small Letter E Grave è ^e` Capital Letter T Stroke Ŧ ^T-  
Small Letter E Macron ē ^e_ Small Letter T Caron ť ^tv  
Small Letter E Ogonek ę ^e( Small Letter T Cedilla ţ ^t,  
Capital Letter G Breve Ğ ^G) Small Letter T Stroke ŧ ^t-  
Capital Letter G Cedilla Ģ ^G, Capital Letter U Acute Ú ^U'  
Capital Letter G Circumflex Ĝ ^G^ Capital Letter U Breve Ŭ ^U)  
Capital Letter G Dot Ġ ^G. Capital Letter U Circumflex Û ^U^  
Small Letter G Breve ğ ^g) Capital Letter U Diaeresis Ü ^U"  
Small Letter G Cedilla ģ ^g, Capital Letter U Double Acute Ű ^U:  
Small Letter G Circumflex ĝ ^g^ Capital Letter U Grave Ù ^U`  
Small Letter G Dot ġ ^g. Capital Letter U Macron Ū ^U_  
Capital Letter H Circumflex Ĥ ^H^ Capital Letter U Ogonek Ų ^U(  
Capital Letter H Stroke Ħ ^H- Capital Letter U Ring Ů ^U*  
Small Letter H Circumflex ĥ ^h^ Capital Letter U Tilde Ũ ^U~  
Small Letter H Stroke ħ ^h- Small Letter U Acute ú ^u'  
Capital Letter I Acute Í ^I' Small Letter U Breve ŭ ^u)  
Capital Letter I Breve Ĭ ^I) Small Letter U Circumflex û ^u^  
Capital Letter I Circumflex Î ^I^ Small Letter U Diaeresis ü ^u"  
Capital Letter I Diaeresis Ï ^I" Small Letter U Double Acute ű ^u:  
Capital Letter I Dot İ ^I. Small Letter U Grave ù ^u`  
Capital Letter I Grave Ì ^I` Small Letter U Macron ū ^u_  
Capital Letter I Macron Ī ^I_ Small Letter U Ogonek ų ^u(  
Capital Letter I Ogonek Į ^I( Small Letter U Ring ů ^u*  
Capital Letter I Tilde Ĩ ^I~ Small Letter U Tilde ũ ^u~  
Small Letter I Acute í ^i' Capital Letter W Circumflex Ŵ ^W^  
Small Letter I Breve ĭ ^i) Small Letter W Circumflex ŵ ^w^  
Small Letter I Circumflex î ^i^ Capital Letter Y Acute Ý ^Y'  
Small Letter I Diaeresis ï ^i" Capital Letter Y Circumflex Ŷ ^Y^  
Small Letter I Grave ì ^i` Capital Letter Y Diaeresis Ÿ ^Y"  
Small Letter I Macron ī ^i_ Small Letter Y Acute ý ^y'  
Small Letter I Ogonek į ^i( Small Letter Y Circumflex ŷ ^y^  
Small Letter I Tilde ĩ ^i~ Small Letter Y Diaeresis ÿ ^y"  
Capital Letter J Circumflex Ĵ ^J^ Capital Letter Z Acute Ź ^Z'  
Small Letter J Circumflex ĵ ^j^ Capital Letter Z Caron Ž ^Zv  
Capital Letter K Cedilla Ķ ^K, Capital Letter Z Dot Ż ^Z.  
Small Letter K Cedilla ķ ^k, Small Letter Z Acute ź ^z'  
Capital Letter L Acute Ĺ ^L' Small Letter Z Caron ž ^zv  
Capital Letter L Caron Ľ ^Lv Small Letter Z Dot ż ^z.  
Capital Letter L Cedilla Ļ ^L,